Essbase Connector Error – Client Commands are Currently Not Being Accepted

DataStage Essbase Connector, Essbase Connector Error, Client Commands are Currently Not Being Accepted

DataStage Essbase Connector

While investigating a recent Infosphere Information Server (IIS), Datastage, Essbase Connect error I found the explanations of the probable causes of the error not to be terribly meaningful.  So, now that I have run our error to ground, I thought it might be nice to jot down a quick note of the potential cause of the ‘Client Commands are Currently Not Being Accepted’ error, which I gleaned from the process.

Error Message Id

  • IIS-CONN-ESSBASE-01010

Error Message

An error occurred while processing the request on the server. The error information is 1051544 (message on contacting or from application:[<<DateTimeStamp>>]Local////3544/Error(1013204) Client Commands are Currently Not Being Accepted.

Possible Causes of The Error

This Error is a problem with access to the Essbase object or accessing the security within the Essbase Object.  This can be a result of multiple issues, such as:

  • Object doesn’t exist – The Essbase object didn’t exist in the location specified,
  • Communications – the location is unavailable or cannot be reached,
  • Path Security – Security gets in the way to access the Essbase object location
  • Essbase Security – Security within the Essbase object does not support the user or filter being submitted. Also, the Essbase object security may be corrupted or incomplete.
  • Essbase Object Structure –  the Essbase object was not properly structured to support the filter or the Essbase filter is malformed for the current structure.

Related References

IBM Knowledge Center, InfoSphere Information Server 11.7.0, Connecting to data sources, Enterprise applications, IBM InfoSphere Information Server Pack for Hyperion Essbase

Printable PDF Version of This Article

 

Professional Emails include a signature Block

eMail, Professional Emails include a signature Block

eMail

I encountered, what I will admit is a pet peeve today, which is why I’m writing this article.  I needed contact someone whom I correspond with regularly, but I have no reason to call or be called by them.  So, after checking my phone, went to their email thinking this would be a fast and easy way to gather the contact information.  Well, not true.  I did eventually gather the information and contact the person, but what a waste of time, which is time they are being billed for one way or another.

Example Signature Block

Ewing A. BusinessProfessional

Senior, Technical Generalist

Favinger Enterprises, Inc.

100 Spacious Sky, Ice Flats, AZ 85001

Phone: (800) 900-1000 | http://www.favingerentprises.com

 

Which email should have a signature block?

  • The signature block should be on every email (both initiated by you and replied to by you), this was true even before the days of remote work, but for remote workers, contingent works, and works who travel frequently it can be a productive enhancer.
  • Plus, it is simply the professional thing to do and saves everyone time and frustration. Not to mention it makes you look unprofessional not having one. do you really want to do that to your personal brand?
  • As if that were not enough, including your signature block is free advertising for you and the company you represent.
  • Additionally, most email accounts let you build one or more signature block, which can be embedded in your email.

Where to place your Signature Block?

  • The signature block should go at the bottom of your email. I still use the five lines below the last line of the body of the email to provide white space before the closing, as I learned when writing business letters decades ago.

What should be in a signature Block?

  • The signature block should be compact and informative and at a minimum should include:

The Closing

  • The closing is simply a polite way of saying I’m ending my message now. I usually go with the tried and true ‘Sincerely’, but others go with ‘Thank you’, ‘Best Regards’, or ‘Best Wishes,’. The main points, it should be short, polite, and professional.
  • This section should be followed by two lines

Your Name

  • This line is your professional name (First Name, Middle Initial, and Last name) and designations (Ph.D.…etc.)
  • This is your chance to say who you are and brand yourself to the reader, in a way which your email address cannot. Especially, when you consider that many of us don’t control what work email address is assigned to us.

Your Business Title

  • Including your business title provides some insight into your role and professional expertise.

Your Company Name

  • Much like your title, providing the Company Name and Address lets the reader know who you represent and, perhaps, more importantly, it is free advertising for the company.

Your Phone Numbers

  • Including your phone numbers, both office and cell (if different) enable people to quickly reach out to you if they need or want to. Not everybody keeps all their infrequent business contacts in the phone directory.
  • Putting your phone numbers on your signature block, also, enable the potential caller to verify that the numbers which they may have are still correct.

There are other items are sometimes included, such as:

  • A company logo to enhance the appearance and quality of a signature block
  • The Company’s website to help customer find out more about the company and to direct business to the company
  • The senders email to reinforce the email address in the header of the email.

However, the guidance provided above will make you look a lot more professional in a hurry if you have not been including a signature block in your emails.

Printable PDF Version of This Article

My Most Used Windows 10 Keyboard Shortcuts

Shortcut Keystrokes

Shortcut Keystrokes

While there are a great number of useful windows 10 shortcuts, I have the list below the combination, which I use daily.  Many of the shortcuts can be used across multiple applications (e.g. Notepad++, MS Word, SQL Server, Aginity, etc.) and save a considerable amount of mouse work.  Overall, these shortcut keys are more efficient and faster than using the mouse to perform the same task on a repetitive basis.

You may want to investigate the numerous other Windows 10 shortcuts keys, which best apply to your daily activities, but these are the ones, which I have found most useful and which I have committed to memory.

Table of My Most Used Windows Shortcuts

Key
Strokes

Behavior

Alt
+ Tab

Switch
between open apps

Ctrl
+ A

Select
all items in a document or window

Ctrl
+ Alt + Tab

Use
the arrow keys to switch between all open apps

Ctrl
+ C

Copy
the selected item

Ctrl
+ D

Delete
the selected item and move it to the Recycle Bin

Ctrl
+ F

Select
the search box

Ctrl
+ V

Paste
the selected item

Ctrl
+ X

Cut
the selected item

Esc

Stop
or leave the current task

F5

Refresh
the active window

F11

Maximize
Window

Related References

 Microsoft > Windows Support > Keyboard shortcuts in Windows

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Benefits of Having a Project Cart

Home Office Project Cart

Home Office Project Cart

I never really thought about how to make my home office more convenient even though I have worked from home for several years. However, I recently purchased a nice three-level cart and have found it extraordinarily useful. Especially, as I have my books and other reference materials scattered throughout my house in multiple bookcases and some even in the garage on shelves.

Advantages of a project cart

Among the advantages of a project cart that I have found are:

  • ability to declutter my office
  • put my research materials and notes into organized buckets
  • ability to swap out my reference materials according to my work priorities for the day
  • the ability to hide the cart and what the contents of it are

Qualities of a good home office cart

here are some things I would recommend you consider before buying your office cart, which may make the cart more valuable to you:

  • first, the cart should be sturdy, you really don’t want a rickety cart, if you’re going to be rolling around your house and loading it up with heavy books or other project materials according to your interests.
  • the cart should be small enough to tuck away someplace when you wanted out of sight in case you have visitors or company or something. For example, when my cart is not in use, I roll the cart into a nice little closet in the hall out of the way.
  • Consider carefully the wheels; my house has tile throughout, so, small wheels are fine. However, if you have carpeting or uneven edges that you must cross with the cart you may want to consider larger and wider wheels.
  • Of course, there are the aesthetics, do you care if the cart has a rustic look, or a modern office look, or even what color it is.

 

Oracle TO_CHAR to SQL Server CONVERT Equivalents to change Date to String

Transact SQL (T-SQL)

Transact SQL (T-SQL)

When it comes to SQL I tend to lean on the SQL I have used the most over the years, which is Oracle.  Today was no exception, I found myself trying to use the TO_CHAR command in SQL Server to format a date, which of course does not work. So, after a little thought, here are some examples of how you can the SQL Server Convert Command the achieve the equivalent result.

Example SQL Server Date Conversion SQL

Example SQL Server Date Conversion SQL

Example SQL Server Date Conversion SQL Code

This SQL of examples runs, as is, no from table required.

 

Select

CONVERT(VARCHAR(10), GETDATE(), 20) as
‘YYYY-MM-DD’

,CONVERT(VARCHAR(19), GETDATE(), 20) as ‘YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS’

,CONVERT(VARCHAR(8), GETDATE(), 112) as YYYYMMDD

,CONVERT(VARCHAR(6), GETDATE(), 112) as YYYYMM

,CONVERT(VARCHAR(12), DATEPART(YEAR, GETDATE()))+ RIGHT(‘0’+CAST(MONTH(GETDATE()) AS VARCHAR(2)),2)
as
YYYYMM_Method_2

,CONVERT(VARCHAR(4), GETDATE(), 12) as YYMM

,CONVERT(VARCHAR(4), GETDATE(), 112) as YYYY

,CONVERT(VARCHAR(4), DATEPART(YEAR, GETDATE())) as YYYY_Method_2

,CONVERT(VARCHAR(4), YEAR(GETDATE())) as YYYY_Method_3

,RIGHT(‘0’+CAST(MONTH(GETDATE()) AS VARCHAR(2)),2) as Two_Digit_Month

,SUBSTRING(ltrim(CONVERT(VARCHAR(4), GETDATE(), 12)),3,2) as Two_Digit_Month_2

,CONVERT(VARCHAR(10), GETDATE(), 111) as ‘YYYY/MM/DD’

,CONVERT(VARCHAR(5), GETDATE(), 8) as ‘HH24:MI’

,CONVERT(VARCHAR(8), GETDATE(), 8) ‘HH24:MI:SS’

Map TO_CHAR formats to SQL Server

You can map an Oracle TO_CHAR formats to SQL Server alternative commands as follows:

TO_CHAR
String

VARCHAR
Length

SQL
Server Convert Style

YYYY-MM-DD

VARCHAR(10)

20,
21, 120, 121, 126 and 127

YYYY-MM-DD
HH24:MI:SS

VARCHAR(19)

20,
21, 120 and 121

YYYYMMDD

VARCHAR(8)

112

YYYYMM

VARCHAR(6)

112

YYMM

VARCHAR(4)

12

YYYY

VARCHAR(4)

112

MM

VARCHAR(2)

12

YYYY/MM/DD

VARCHAR(10)

111

HH24:MI

VARCHAR(5)

8,
108, 14 and 114

HH24:MI:SS

VARCHAR(8)

8,
108, 14 and 114

Translating the formats commands

Here are some example of translating the formats commands.

Format

SQL
Server

YYYY-MM-DD

CONVERT(VARCHAR(10),
GETDATE(), 20)

YYYY-MM-DD
HH24:MI:SS

CONVERT(VARCHAR(19),
GETDATE(), 20)

YYYYMMDD

CONVERT(VARCHAR(8),
GETDATE(), 112)

YYYYMM

CONVERT(VARCHAR(6),
GETDATE(), 112)

YYMM

CONVERT(VARCHAR(4),
GETDATE(), 12)

YYYY

CONVERT(VARCHAR(4),
GETDATE(), 112)

YYYY

CONVERT(VARCHAR(4),
DATEPART(YEAR, GETDATE()))

YYYY

CONVERT(VARCHAR(4),
YEAR(GETDATE()))

MM

RIGHT(‘0’+CAST(MONTH(GETDATE())
AS VARCHAR(2)),2)

MM

SUBSTRING(ltrim(CONVERT(VARCHAR(4),
GETDATE(), 12)),3,2)

YYYY/MM/DD

CONVERT(VARCHAR(10),
GETDATE(), 111)

HH24:MI

CONVERT(VARCHAR(5),
GETDATE(), 8)

HH24:MI:SS

CONVERT(VARCHAR(8),
GETDATE(), 8)

Related Reference

Microsoft Docs, SQL, T-SQL Functions, GETDATE (Transact-SQL)

Microsoft Docs, SQL, T-SQL Functions, Date and Time Data Types and Functions (Transact-SQL)

Microsoft Docs, SQL, T-SQL Functions, DATEPART (Transact-SQL)

 

 

What Are The DataStage / QualityStage Join Stages?

Three Stages Which Join Records

Three Stages Which Join Records

While chasing an error to which only applied to join type stages, I thought it might be nice to identify what the InfoSphere Information Server DataStage / QualityStage are.  There are three of them, as you can see from the picture above, which are the:

  • Join Stage,
  • Lookup Stage,
  • And, Merge Stage.

All three stages that join data based on the values of identified key columns.

Related References

IBM Knowledge Center, InfoSphere Information Server 11.7.0, InfoSphere DataStage and QualityStage, Developing parallel jobs, Processing Data, Lookup Stage

IBM Knowledge Center, InfoSphere Information Server 11.7.0, InfoSphere DataStage and QualityStage, Developing parallel jobs, Processing Data, Join Stage

IBM Knowledge Center, InfoSphere Information Server 11.7.0, InfoSphere DataStage and QualityStage, Developing parallel jobs, Processing Data, Merge Stage

https://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/SSZJPZ_11.7.0/com.ibm.swg.im.iis.ds.parjob.dev.doc/topics/c_deeref_Merge_Stage.html

Parallel jobs on Windows fail with APT_IOPort::readBlkVirt;error

APT_IOPort::readBlkVirt Error Screenshot

APT_IOPort::readBlkVirt Error Screenshot

This a known error for windows systems and applies to DataStage and DataQuality jobs using the any or all the three join type stages (Join, Merge, and Lookup).

Error Message

  • <<Link name>>,0: APT_IOPort::readBlkVirt: read for block header, partition 0, [fd 4], returned -1 with errno 10,054 (Unknown error)

Message ID

  • IIS-DSEE-TFIO-00223

Applies To

  • Windows systems only
  • Parallel Engine Jobs the three join type stages (Join, Merge, and Lookup). It does not apply to Server Engine jobs.
  • Infosphere Information Server (IIS), Datastage and DataQuality 9.1 and higher

The Fix

  • Add the APT_NO_IOCOMM_OPTIMIZATION in project administrator and set to blank or 0. I left it blank so it would not impact other jobs
  • Add the environment variable to the job producing the error and set to 1

What it APT_NO_IOCOMM_OPTIMIZATION Does

  • Sets the use of shared memory as the transport type, rather than using the default sockets transport type.
  • Note that in most cases sockets transport type is faster, so, you likely will not to set this across the project as the default for all job. It is best to apply it as necessary for problematic jobs.

Related References

InfoSphere DataStage and QualityStage, Version 9.1 Job Compatibility

IBM Support, JR54078: PARALLEL JOBS ON WINDOWS FAIL WITH APT_IOPORT::READBLKVIRT; ERROR

IBM Support, Information Server DataStage job fails with unknown error 10,054.

 

SQL server table Describe (DESC) equivalent

 

Transact SQL (T-SQL)

Transact SQL (T-SQL)

Microsoft SQL Server doesn’t seem have a describe command and usually, folks seem to want to build a stored procedure to get the describe behaviors.  However, this is not always practical based on your permissions. So, the simple SQL below will provide describe like information in a pinch.  You may want to dress it up a bit; but I usually just use it raw, as shown below by adding the table name.

Describe T-SQL Equivalent

Select *

From INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS

Where TABLE_NAME = ‘<<TABLENAME>>’;

Related References

Microsoft SQL Server – Useful links

Microsoft SQL Server 2017

Microsoft SQL Server 2017

Here are a few references for the Microsoft SQL Server 2017 database, which may be helpful.

Table Of Useful Microsoft SQL Server Database References

Reference Type

Link

SQL Server 2017 Download Page

https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/sql-server/sql-server-downloads

SQL SERVER version, edition, and update level

https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/help/321185/how-to-determine-the-version–edition-and-update-level-of-sql-server-a

SQL Server 2017 Release Notes

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/sql-server/sql-server-2017-release-notes

SQL Server Transact SQL Commands

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms189826(v=sql.90).aspx

Related References

Common Keyboard shortcuts for Internet browsers

Internet Browser

Internet Browser

Here are some useful keyboard shortcuts, which can increase your speed and reduce the use of the mouse when working one of the common Windows Internet browsers.

Keystrokes Function
CTRL C Copy
CTRL N New window
CTRL Shift T Reopen last closed tab
CTRL W   Close current tab
CTRL F Find on page
CTRL T New tab
CTRL Shift W Close browser and all open tabs
CTRL Plus Zoom in
CTRL Minus:   Zoom out
CTRL 0: Resets zoom to default

 

What is Source Control?

Acronyms, Abbreviations, Terms, And Definitions

Acronyms, Abbreviations, Terms, And Definitions

Source Control is an Information technology environment management system for storing, tracking and managing changes to software. This is commonly done through a process of creating branches (copies for safely creating new features) off of the stable master version of the software, then merging stable feature branches back into the master version. This is also known as version control or revision control.

DataStage – How to Pass the Invocation ID from one Sequence to another

DataStage Invocation ID Passing Pattern Overview

DataStage Invocation ID Passing Pattern Overview

When you are controlling a chain of sequences in the job stream and taking advantage of reusable (multiple instances) jobs it is useful to be able to pass the Invocation ID from the master controlling sequence and have it passed down and assigned to the job run.  This can easily be done with needing to manual enter the values in each of the sequences, by leveraging the DSJobInvocationId variable.  For this to work:

  • The job must have ‘Allow Multiple Instance’ enabled
  • The Invocation Id must be provided in the Parent sequence must have the Invocation Name entered
  • The receiving child sequence will have the invocation variable entered
  • At runtime, a DataStage invocation id instance of the multi-instance job will generate with its own logs.

Variable Name

  • DSJobInvocationId

Note

This approach allows for the reuse of job and the assignment of meaningful instance extension names, which are managed for a single point of entry in the object tree.

Related References: 

IBM Knowledge Center > InfoSphere Information Server 11.5.0

InfoSphere DataStage and QualityStage > Designing DataStage and QualityStage jobs > Building sequence jobs > Sequence job activities > Job Activity properties

Why Consilience Is Important?

Tree of knowledge

Tree of knowledge

What is Consilience?

Consilience is the confluence of concepts and/or principles from different disciplines, especially, when forming a comprehensive unifying theory.

Independent Confirmation

Why are some inventions discovered at the same time in different parts of the world? Does this have something to do with the scientific process of “sharing important discoveries?” Generally, scientists believe that they are part of a community of knowledge. Their discoveries do not occur in a vacuum. They must give credit to those who went before and created the foundation for their work. Therefore, when they discover something new, they are required to share it with the entire world. This sharing is part of knowledge evolution. Interestingly enough, it is also key to the World Wide Web. Collaboration is one of the key strengths of the Internet. It is a way to increase overall knowledge of Planet Earth. Science can also increase the strength of their theories through independent confirmation.

Result Conciliation

There are oftentimes prescriptions for the types and numbers of witnesses to accomplish certain legal requirements. Anyone who has completed an experiment understands the importance of result conciliation. A hypothesis is not proven to be true unless it can be repeated by independent sources. This shows that the reality is objective. The word, Consilience was formed by two Latin words – “com” meaning “together” and the suffix “-silence” meaning “jumping.” Therefore, Consilience means “jumping together” or a “convergence of proof from independent sources.” Scientists should use different methods to reach the same conclusion. Business and economics have a similar concept. Just think of the concept of a Recession or Depression. These are officially declared when a variety of indicators are in agreement – stock market, employment, inflation, money supply and so forth.

Knowledge Evolution

Consulting can use the concept of Consilience to teach firms how to follow objective norms. Technology consulting can compare a subjective company’s practices to objective industry norms. The best career development is successful based on objective, independent analysis. The concordance of evidence can help a business create a successful strategy. Consilience is the convergence of evidence from independent sources to prove the validity of a conclusion. Objective corporate success can be achieved by satisfying objective needs of your customers. Business intelligence requires an objective standard, such as Consilience to be useful.

Conclusion

Consilience is important to you because the answer to any given problem may not necessarily come from within your field of expertise and experience. rather, to be truly competitive in an ever in an ever increasing world of knowledge, we need to adopt a broad-scoped renaissance approach to learning and thinking, which folds in other sets of concepts and principles to create the durable solutions for today and tomorrow.

 

Management principles – You can’t Manage what you don’t Measure

Business Intelligence and Analytics

Business Intelligence and Analytics

 

Management and Measurement

You can’t manage what you don’t measure is an old management adage that has been used for many years and while most attribute it to Peter Drucker, some claim that the quote was first used by Dr. W. Edwards Deming, although it is a bone of contention whether or not the quote is used in the correct context.

Irrespective of who said it first, I have always agreed with the principle. Coming from a corporate background where this is one of the management principles often used, I was surprised to learn that there are those that strongly disagree with the statement. This group argues that there are many things being managed at work that aren’t measurable, from the confidence we instill in a new, young manager, to the quality of new hires.

The argument is made that quantity is easy to measure, i.e., how much salespeople sell, how many leads marketing creates, or how many phone calls telemarketing makes, but that quality can’t be measured, i.e., excellent customer service, good technical support, or what differentiates a good consultant from a great one.

What to measure

Many organizations use Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) at multiple levels to measure their success at reaching targets, and will then manage the factors influencing the KPI to get it to where they want it to be. A KPI is a value that is measured and shows how effective a company is in reaching key business goals.

Setting a KPI and measuring a specific value is however not always as straightforward as it might seem. To set a KPI, the underlying business objective needs to be properly understood. In one example, a department manager’s KPI included the volume of sales, measured in dollars. In an effort to improve sales, the manager decided to change the remuneration of her sales reps from a fixed salary to a small, basic salary plus commission on sales made. The idea behind this was to incentivize the work, which would lead to increased sales. In the early months after implementing the change, the sales made by account reps did indeed increase dramatically. The CFO then however discovered that the profit margin on those increased sales was substantially lower than the minimum the company expected. The sales reps were discounting the product to increase sales, resulting in a high commission, but the net effect was that the company made less profit.

It is critical that the company’s objectives are clearly understood by all parties and that a suitable metric is measured to check if the objective is being met.

Can quality be measured?

Those arguing that quality, such as excellent customer service, or good technical support can’t be measured, often express the view that the only way that a company can determine how good their service or support is, is by asking the customer. I agree with that statement, but when you do that, aren’t you measuring these aspects? If 50% of your customers feel that your service and support is good, that is a measure against which you can manage and improve those objectives.

The same can be done for any qualitative metric. It merely becomes a question of what is appropriate to measure, and how to obtain those metrics. Qualitative measures often have to be done indirectly, i.e., you need to measure indirect results rather than direct ones.

 The role of Business Intelligence

With the sheer volume of data available across the business, and with much of it residing in different systems, it becomes very difficult to extract the relevant metrics to measure and improve. This is where Business intelligence or BI comes in.

BI utilizes computer-based techniques to spot, extract, and analyze business data, including things like sales, marketing, and production in order to make substantial improvements. Business Intelligence uses data already collected in the business. It is able to utilize data from such diverse sources as website analytics, accounting systems, customer relationship management (CRM) and email management systems.

A Business Intelligence system can automatically use and analyze all the information from these applications in real-time. This enables companies to quickly see, manage and improve their performance. BI goes further than simply measuring performance so that it can be improved, but also helps identify weaknesses in the company.

When an organization grows to the point where huge volumes of data are involved, analytics are used to examine large and varied data sets to uncover correlations, hidden patterns, customer preferences and market trends; so, organizations can make more-informed business decisions.

Both BI and big data analytics can hugely benefit Organization & Planning within any business. If you have all this information, irrespective of how exactly it was obtained or measured, managing the direction you want to go becomes an informed decision that can be planned for, rather than a guessing game based on ‘gut feel.’

A crucial element that is required in today’s fast-moving world is an organization’s ability to respond rapidly to changes in both the external and internal environment. This is known as Business agility, and it is not possible to do if the business does not measure what is going on inside and around it, and then manages accordingly.

Related References

 

Consulting – You must love your work?

Work Success

Work Success

Why you should love your work

Sooner or later you will wonder why you are not passionate and energized about your work. At the same time, an inner voice will tell you to suck it up because work is only a four-letter word and you are not supposed to enjoy it.

It is a misconception because loving your work can bring manage benefits. Work should enable and empower, not entrap.  Here we have some of the reasons why you should love your work.

Helps with your success

When you love your career, no one can stop you from getting successful. You will do everything that it takes to assure that your customers love what you are offering, and your boss appreciates your every move. You would prefer to collect the appreciations because your every move will be well planned, and you will not be afraid to take it to the next level.

You are always ready to learn

You will do anything that will help you in future when you love your work.

  • We all know that technology is evolving, and you will take every step to assure that you learn how to work in the new environment.
  • You will be ready to attend all the conferences and other presentation only to learn something new
  • When you love what do training is easier to take and will feel less like an imposition, and you will never want to miss your chance of learning something innovational and new
  • With the passage of time, your knowledge, experience, and skill will grow

You will be willing to work until an older age

The best thing about loving your work is that you would prefer to work as long as you can. Most people, who do not love their work, spend most of their time waiting for the retirement. As soon as they are retired, they feel like their burden has been relieved.

However, when you love your work, you will never like to leave it. You will love to continue your job one way or another to assure that you are never disconnected. The word retirement will not be present in your dictionary. There are a few individuals that have worked till their last breath only because they loved being the part of their country.

More energy and determination

You will have more energy to put into your work when you love it. You will take all the risks, and even if you have to stay up all night, you will do it only to assure that everything is fine with your work. You will give your work everything to make it reach the level of success of which you have dreamt. You will be determined, and there is nothing that can reduce your motivation when you are working.

You will be ready to make a difference

When you start loving your work, you will notice that you will begin to think about new projects and products that will enhance the visibility of your business and this approach that will help you outpace and create your competitors. When the market is getting highly competitive, it is not easy to prove that you are different but when you love your work you can do anything to stand out. It might not be easy in the beginning, but with passion, you will get used to it.

You will quickly overcome challenges

One of the most significant benefits of loving your work is that you will be ready to face all the challenges thrown your way. You would take them positively as a way of growing and learning new things. Every morning you will wake up with a new energy and enthusiasm. You will be waiting for the new challenge that comes your way. The problem-solving skills will improve, and you will notice a difference in your mood and attitude. It will be easier for you to work with your team and your company will grow.

Tips for loving your work

In case that you have lost the passion and it has become hard for you to love your work or have the required energy. Do not worry because we have got your back with some of the important tips that will help you grow quickly.

1-Discover what you love

Confusions can happen anytime, and that is why we often make the wrong decision. It is important that you have proper mentoring because it is the only way to find out what you love. With the help of mentoring all your doubts will clear, and you will know that you have taken the right decision.

2-Take risks

Once you have found what you love it is important that you take the required risk to make it happen. It is a reality that when we are trying to do something new and unique, our family and friends will oppose us. They love us and want the best for us, and that is why they will try to pursue you to do something else.

However, if you understand your goals, it is important to take a chance. You should take their opposition as motivation because it will help you to show everyone that you can turn the thing you love into a successful business.

3-Stay positive

When you are doing what you love there will come a time when you will have no support. You might need some financial help, but no one will be there for you because they think that you are wasting your time and you will waste their money as well.

However, you have to stay healthy and confident. The reason is that if you break at this point, you will never be able to stand up again and show people the potential you have within you. Take some help from the lenders and assure that you have the best business plan, work hard and prove.

4-Know what you value in life

There are three things that you have to pay attention to

  • Security
  • Achievement
  • Purpose

It is vital for you to identify that which one of these factors are most important to you. Once you will learn it will become easier for you to follow the path you love. There are different sides of the business, and it is essential that you learn which one of them you like the most.

Understanding the purpose of your life is important because only then you will be able to follow the right path. If you want security make sure that you make yourself secure first before you start to invest in your business. Once you get what you want it would be easier for you to pay attention towards your job. It might take some time, but you will eventually learn what you to do and when to take the right decisions.

5-Do not say  ‘will do,’ just do it

The most common mistake that we often make is that we keep saying that we will do something, but we do not take the required steps. We keep delaying the tasks and actions we should seek to accomplish what we want. In the end, the only regret remains because the right time is not available anymore.

It is essential that you do things today, instead of leaving them for tomorrow. Take baby steps in the beginning. Once you start doing what you want,  nothing can stop you from taking everything to the next level. It is the time for the decision and so stop wasting your time.

6-Use power of attraction

You might find it funny, but the power of attraction exists. Once you start giving everything to what you love, others will notice your passion and enthusiasm. They will see that how hard you are working and, so they will love to invest in your work.

Your hard work and passion will give the impression that you are trustworthy and true to your work. That is why people will be attracted, and it will help to increase your revenue with the passage of time, and it will attract more individuals, and there will be no going back.

How Consulting can help you love your career

Once you are ready to love your work, but you are finding it hard to do so consulting will be the best option. Consultants will never let you lose your positivity and passion. Here we have a few ways in which consultants can help you.

Self-motivation

The biggest benefits you will get from consulting is self-motivation. The best consultants know how to train you to always stay at the top of your mood even in the worst conditions. Experienced consultants will teach you different tricks and techniques that will help you to deal with even the toughest situations. In time you will learn to manage your stress, and so you will find something productive even in the darkest hours.

Learn to collaborate

To make the business successful, you have to develop and work with the team. There are a few leaders that think themselves as complete, and so they will not pay attention towards what their team is saying even if they are correct. It will make them hate you. Consultants will teach you to collaborate with your team. They will guide you to take their advice so that it will become easy for you to manage the tasks and you will always be open to new ideas and techniques.

Perfect solution

You will notice that with consulting you will be able to find the solution to every problem. The reason is that consultants always have the best solution to every problem or they will find one in limited time. When you stay with one, you will learn their tricks as well. Even your team will be surprised that how easy it is for you to deal with different problems.

Helps you find your path

In case you are not on the right path, there is no need to be concerned.  The consultants will ask a few questions to look for the reason that might have been disturbing your inner peace. Once they find the issue, they will help you to acknowledge it. They will be at your side in every situation, and so soon you will be able to make the most important decisions easily without any distractions or issues.

Mentoring

Consultants will be your perfect mentors. They will guide you regarding everything and will assure that you never take a wrong decision. They have more experience than you have and they have faced the world as no one other has. So they will mentor you in every tough situation. You can turn to them whenever you feel stuck or disturbed. Let them know your issues, and they will understand that where you are going wrong to help you out.

Bottom line

Once you learn to love your work, you will have a more peaceful and successful life. It is never too late to change your path and do what to love or find passion in what you are already doing. Take help from the best consultants because they know what you need the most. While selecting the consultant, you have to be very careful. All the consultants are the best, but every one of them has specialties in different fields. Make sure you select the one who meets your requirements in the best possible way. Let them know your goals and issues, and they will tell you who is the best for you.

Related References

 

 

What does the Information technology consultant do?

Consultants

Consultants

What’s the information technology consultant job?

The growth of e-services and the rise of social computing has created an increase in the demand for information technology consultant jobs.

The combination of technology and business knowledge is what information technology consultancy is all about. It focuses on advising their clients on how to perfectly use information technology to achieve their business objectives and overcome they IT problems they may face, improving the IT systems’ structure and efficiency in such organizations.

Moreover, information technology consultants provide these organizations with strategic guidance, in the form of estimating, managing, implementing, deploying and administering their IT systems, helping major business processes through the enhancement of IT systems.

Providing expert technical assistance and guidance during selection and procurement are also parts of what the information technology consultant do. IT consultants can also be involved in business development, technical duties, and even sales, having the responsibility for user training and feedback as well.

Why are IT consultants called in?

For:

  • Specialized expertise
  • Their recommendations and external, objective advice
  • Temporary help during a one-time project, when hiring permanent employees is not necessary
  • Outsourcing IT services from a specific company

IT consultants’ duties

Their duties will depend on the nature of each project.

However, a typical project may involve:

  • The consultation of staff from different parts of a client’s organization
  • The analysis of the organization’s data
  • The determination of the information system requirements
  • Defining the objectives of the project
  • Making recommendations, as IT consultants may suggest appropriate hardware, software, and systems
  • Designing, installing and trialing software and, fixing any problems that may arise
  • Collecting and presenting information
  • Writing reports and documentation
  • Resolving computer problems and removing viruses
  • Training users
  • Responding to customer inquiries.

Therefore, the IT consultants’ day duties may include:

  • Meeting with clients to determine their requirements
  • Working with them to define the scope of the project
  • Planning timescales and the resources needed for the project
  • Clarifying the clients’ system specifications, understanding the nature of their business and their work practices
  • Travelling to the client sites.
  • The cooperation with the staff members at all levels in the organization
  • Determining the software, hardware and network’s requirements
  • Analyzing the IT requirements, giving their independent and objective advice on the use of these IT systems
  • Suggesting new solutions and new systems implementation
  • Presenting such solutions in oral or written reports
  • Assisting clients with change-management activities
  • Purchasing systems where appropriate
  • Designing, testing, installing and monitoring new systems
  • Preparing documentation and presenting progress reports to clients
  • The organization of users’ training and also for other consultants
  • Being involved in sales
  • Supporting and maintaining contact with clients’ organizations
  • Identifying potential clients and building and maintaining contacts.

Qualifications

Having any degree, you can enter the information technology consultancy field, even if you are a school leaver, but you have to show interest in and knowledge of such field. And of course, previous work experience and deep interest in IT consultancy are beneficial. A master’s degree is not required to get an IT consultant job. However, it increases the chances of securing such jobs, especially if your degree is not in a related subject to information technology.

Here are some of the subjects that are useful for IT consultant jobs.

  • Software engineering
  • Information systems
  • Electronic/electrical engineering
  • Business studies
  • Mathematics
  • Computer science
  • Other science/engineering disciplines

However, there are some postgraduate courses for graduates of unrelated subjects to provide students with the valuable skills needed for the business industry as well as, skills required for information technology consultant jobs.

What are the most important skills required?

You need to possess these skills to compete in the information technology consultancy field:

  • Teamwork skills
  • Interpersonal and communication skills
  • Advisory language skills
  • Business and management language skills
  • Technical language skills
  • The ability to introduce technical information to non-IT clients and also, colleagues
  • Business skills
  • Problem-solving skills
  • Leadership skills
  • Technical and analytical skills
  • Good organizational skills to prioritize heavy workloads
  • Time management skills to meet deadlines
  • The ability to work under pressure
  • Multitasking ability
  • Presentation skills
  • Attention to details
  • Confidence
  • Decision making
  • Excellent customer service skills
  • The ability to learn quickly
  • Adaptability and flexibility

What to expect?

  • It’s an office-based job, working in a project team in clients’ premises. So, IT consultant should expect to travel to clients’ premises.
  • Traveling within the working day to clients’ sites is often needed. Overseas travel may occasionally be necessary, which depends on the consultant’s employer.
  • Also, overnight absence from home is frequently required.
  • As regards the working hours, its officially 8 hours. However, sometimes extra hours are required to meet the clients’ deadlines as well as taking a lot of time traveling to clients’ premises.
  • It’s a stressful job, with strict project based deadlines.
  • A part-time job is unlikely, but IT consultant jobs are project-based so, breaks are possible.
  • Self-employment is also possible, managing your working hours.
  • In the IT consultancy field, men’s percentage exceeds the women’s. However, there are various groups supporting women in IT and technology, to encourage them to work in this industry.
  • Formal dress code, for meetings and visiting clients, but otherwise, it’s relaxed.
  • As regards the salary, the IT consultation fees are measured on a per day or per consultant basis. However, fixed fee IT consultation applied to contracted IT consultants or well-defined projects that have a specific amount of work and a defined timeframe.
  • The salary depends on the type, location and size of the employers and it is also usually performance-related.

Experience required for work

  • Some employers can recruit junior information technology consultants in their business and technology sectors.
  • First and second-year undergraduates can apply for internships in the IT consultancy field, gaining work experience in a commercial environment to acquire management skills and the ability to understand the business benefits of information technology.
  • Competition is fierce so, start applying for IT consultant jobs for large firms in the autumn term of your final year as places will fill fast and the competition is getting stronger as time passes.

Related References

Common Information Technology Architectures

Overview Of Common Information Technology Architectures

The world is currently in the Information and Technology era, were as, so many experts are of the opinion that the Silicon Valley days are beginning to come to an end. Information and Technology is basically what the world revolves around today which makes it necessary to consider some technical overview of Information and Technology architecture use. The term Information Technology is often used in place for computer networks, and it also surrounds other information related technologies like television, cell phones and so on, showing the connection between IT and ICT (thou IT and ICT are often used to replace each other but technically are different). When talking about IT architectural, it is the framework or basis that supports an organization or system. Information technology architectural concerning computing involves virtual and physical resources supporting the collection, processing, analysis and storage of data. The architecture, in this case, can be integrated into a data center or in some other instances decentralized into multiple data centers, which can be managed and controlled by the IT department or third-party IT firm, just like cloud provider or colocation facility. IT architectures usually come into play when we consider hardware for computers (Big Iron: mainframe & Supercomputers), software, internet (LAN / WAN Server based), e-commerce, telecom equipment, storage (Cloud) and so on.

Information Technology Industry Overview

Information Technology Industry Overview

We human beings have been able to manipulate, store, and retrieve data since 3000Bc, but the modern sense of information technology first appeared in an article in 1958 published in a Havard Business Review: Harold j.Leavitt and Thomas L.whisler were the authors, and they further commented that the new technology was lacking an established name. It shall be called information technology (IT). Information Technology is used in virtually all sectors and industries, talking about education, agriculture, marketing, health, governance, finance and so on. Whatever you do, it is always appropriate to have a basic overview of the architectural uses of Information Technology. Now we take a look at some standard Information technology architectures use with regards to technology environment patterns such as Big Iron (mainframe & Supercomputers); Cloud; LAN / WAN Server based; storage (Cloud).

Big Iron (Mainframe & Supercomputers)

Big iron is a term used by hackers, and as defined in the hacker’s dictionary the Jargon File refers to it as “large, expensive, ultra-fast computers. It is used for number crunching supercomputers such as Crays, but can include more conventional big commercial mainframes”. Often used concerning IBM mainframes, when discussing their survival after the invention of lower cost Unix computing systems. More recently the term also applies to highly efficient computer servers and ranches, whose steel racks naturally work in the same manner.

Supercomputers are known to be the world’s fastest and largest computers, and they are primarily used for complex scientific calculations. There are similar components in a supercomputer and desktop computer: they both have memory processors and hard-drives. Although similarities exist between supercomputers and desktop computers, the speeds are significantly different. Supercomputers are way faster and more extensive. The supercomputers large disk storage, high memory, and processors increase the speed and the power of the machine. Although desktop computers can perform thousands or millions of floating-point operations per second know as (megaflops), supercomputers speeds perform at billions of operations per second also known as (gigaflops) and even up to trillions of operations per second know as (teraflops).

Mainframe Computers

Mainframe Computers

Evolution Of Mainframe and Supercomputers

Currently, many computers are indeed faster than the very first supercomputer, the Cray-1, which is designed and developed by Cray Research team during the mid-70s. The Cray-1 had the capacity of computing at the rate of 167 megaflops using a rapid form of computing called the Vector Processing,   which is composed of quick execution of instructions in a state of pipelined fashion. In the mid-80s a faster method of supercomputing was originated: which was called Parallel Processing.  Applications that made use of parallel processing were and are still able to solve computational issues by using multiple processors. Example: if you were going to prepare ice cream, sundaes for nine of your friends. You would need ten scoops of ice cream, ten bowls; ten drizzles of chocolate syrup with ten cherries, working alone you would put one scoop of ice-cream in each bowl and drizzle the syrup on each other. Now, this method of preparing sundaes will be categorized as vector processing. To get the job done very quickly, you will need help from some friends to assist you in a parallel processing method. If five people prepare the ice-cream mixture, it would be five times as fast.

Parallel Processing

Parallel Processing

Application Of Mainframe and Supercomputers

Supercomputers are very powerful that they can provide researchers with the insight into sources that are small, too fast, too big, or maybe very slow to observe in laboratories. Astrophysicists make use of supercomputers as time machines to explore the past and the future of the universe. A fascinating supercomputer simulation was created in the year 2000 that was able to depict the collision of two galaxies: The Andromeda and our very own Milky Way, although this collision will not happen in another 3 billion years from now.

This particular simulation allowed scientist to experiment and the view the result now. The simulation was conducted by Blue Horizon, a parallel supercomputer in the Diego, Supercomputer Center. Using 256 of Blue Horizon’s 1,152 processors, the simulation showed what would happen to millions of stars if the galaxies collided. Another example is molecular dynamic (molecular interactions with each other). Simulation events done with supercomputers allow scientists to study their interactions when two molecules are docked down. Researchers can generate an atom-by-atom picture of the molecular geometry by determining the shape of a molecule’s surface. Atomic experimentation at this level is extremely difficult or impossible to perform in a laboratory environment, but supercomputers have paved the way for scientists to stimulate such behaviors with ease.

Supercomputers Of The Future

Various research centers are always diving into new applications such as data mining to explore additional and multiple uses of supercomputing. Data mining allows scientist to find previously unknown relationships among data, just like the Protein Data Bank at San Diego Supercomputer Center is collecting scientific data that provides other scientists all around the world with more significant ways of understanding of biological systems. So this will provide researchers with new and unlimited insights of the effects, causes, and treatments of so many diseases. Capabilities of and applications of supercomputers will continue to grow as institutions all over the world are willing to share their various discoveries making researchers more proficient at parallel processing.

information technology Data Storage

Electronic data storage, which is widely used in modern computers today, has a date that spans from World War II when a delay memory line was developed to remove the interference from radar signals. We also have the William tube, which was the very first random-access digital storage, based on the cathode ray tube which consumed more electrical power. The problem regarding this was that the information stored in the delay line memory was liable to change flexibly and fast, especially very volatile. So it had to be continuously refreshed, and information was lost whenever power was removed. The first form of non-volatile computer storage system was the magnetic drum, which was the magnetic drum, it was invented in 1932 and used in the (Ferranti Mark 1) the very first commercially available electronic that was for general-purpose.

IBM initially introduced the very first hard disk drive in 1956, as an added component to their 305 RAMAC computer system. Most digitalized data today are stored magnetically on a hard disk, or optically such as CD-ROMS. But in 2002 the digital storage capacity exceeded analog for the first time. In the year 2007, almost 94% of data stored in the world was digitally held: 28% optical devices, 52% hard disks, 11% digital magnetic tape. The worldwide capacity for storing information on electronic devices grew from 3 Exabyte (1986) to 295 Exabyte (2007), doubling every three years. 

Cloud Computing

Cloud Computing

Cloud Storage

Cloud storage is a modern data storage system in which the digital data is stored in an array of logical pools, the physical storage system composes of multiple servers and often various locations, and the environment is usually owned by and managed by a hosting company. Cloud storage supplying companies are in charge of for keeping the data available and accessible, individuals; organizations lease or buy storage capacity from the suppliers to store user, application data or organization. Cloud storage refers to a hosted object-storage service, I a long run the term has broadened to include other sources of data storage systems that are available as a service, just like extended storage.  Examples of block storage services are Amazon S3 and Microsoft Azure storage. Then we also have OceanStore and VISION cloud which are storage systems that can be hosted and also deployed with cloud characteristics.

Cloud computing is changing implementation and design of IT infrastructures. Typically, business-owned traditional database centers are mostly private, and capital-intensive resources (Big-Iron: Mainframe and supercomputers), cloud base computing, on the other hand, enables organizations to have access to cloud base service providers with credible data center infrastructure for a mostly avoidable fee. Infrastructure-as-a-service model, cloud computing, allows flexible data storage on demand. Consumers can beseech cloud service provider’s to help store, compute, and offer other IT related services without installing gadgets and other resources locally, saving a lot of space and money while users can quickly adjust cloud base usage depending on required workload.

Servers

On a typical day, people tend to use different IT-based servers or networks. Firstly, the process of checking your email, over a Wi-Fi connection on your PC, in your house, is a typical server.

The process of logging on to your computer at your place of work, to have access to files from the company’s database that is another typical server. When you are out for coffee the Wi-Fi hotspot at the coffee shop, is another type of server-based communications.

All of these typical servers are set up differently. Servers are mainly categorized according to a geographic area of use and the requirements of the server within those geographic areas. Servers can service just about anyone from one man usage within with one device to millions of people and devices anywhere on the planet.

Some Common Servers we will consider Include:

  • WAN (Wide Area Network)
  • LAN (Local Area Network)
  • PAN (Personal Area Network)
  • MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)

Let’s go into some detail on these networks.

Area Net Relative Size Relationship

Area Net Relative Size Relationship

PAN (Personal Area Network)

PAN (personal area network), is a server integrated for a single person within a building or nearby. It could be inside a little office or a home. A PAN could incorporate at least one PC, phones, minor gadgets, computer game consoles and other gadgets. On the off chance that various people utilize a similar system inside a home, the system is some of the time known as a HAN (Home Area Network).

In an exceptionally common setup, a home will have a single, wired Internet connection associated with a modem. This modem at that point gives both wired and remote service for numerous gadgets. The system is regularly managed from a PC yet can be accessed to from other electronic devices.

This kind of server gives incredible adaptability. For instance, it enables you to:

  • Send a report to the printer in the workplace upstairs while you’re perched in another room with your portable workstation
  • Upload the pictures from your mobile phone to storage device (cloud) associated with your desktop PC
  • View movies from an internet streaming platform on your TV

If this sounds well-known to you, you likely have a PAN in your home without you knowing what it’s called.

LAN (Local Area Network)

LAN (Local Area Network) comprises of a PC network at a single location, regularly an individual office building. LAN is useful for sharing assets, for example, information stockpiling and printers. LANs can be worked with generally modest equipment, for example, network connectors, hubs, and Ethernet links.

A small LAN server may just utilize two PCs, while bigger LANs can oblige a higher number of PCs. A LAN depends on wired networking for speed and security optimization; however wireless networks can be associated with a LAN. Fast speed and moderately low cost are the qualifying attributes of LANs.

LANs are regularly utilized for a place where individuals need to share resources and information among themselves yet not with the outside world. Think about an office building where everyone ought to have the capacity to get to records on the server or have the ability to print an archive to at least one printer. Those assignments ought to be simple for everyone working in a similar office, yet you would not want someone strolling into the office and have access.

 

MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)

MAN (metropolitan area network) comprises of a PC organize over a whole city, school grounds or little district. Contingent upon the arrangement, this kind of system can cover a range from 5 to around 50 kilometers over. A MAN is often used to associate a group of LANs together to form a broader system. When this kind of server is mainly intended for a campus, it can be called CAN (Campus Area Network).

WAN (Wide Area Network)

WAN (wide area network), involves a vast region, for example, a whole nation or the entire world. A WAN can contain various littler systems, for example, LANs or MANs. The Internet is the best-known case of an open WAN.

Conclusion

The world is changing rapidly as modern world continues its unstoppable growth. With so much of the changes happening its good education be capable of touching students in various ways. Students today are leaders, teacher’s inventors and businessmen and women of tomorrow. Information technology has a crucial role in students being able to retain their job and go to school. Especially now that most schools offer various online courses, classes that can be accessed on tablets laptops and mobile phones.

Information technology is reshaping many aspects of the world’s economies, governments, and societies.  IT provide more efficient services, catalyze economic growth, and strengthen social networks, with about 95% of the world’s population now living in an area with the presence of a featured use and implementation of IT. IT is diversified, what you are probably using to have access to this article is based on IT architectural features. Technological advancement is a positive force behind growth in economies of nations, citizen engagement, and job creation.

Netezza / PureData – How To Get A List Of When A Store Procedure Was Last Changed Or Created

Netezza / Puredata - SQL (Structured Query Language)

Netezza / Puredata – SQL (Structured Query Language)

In the continuing journey to track down impacted objects and to determine when the code in a database was last changed or added, here is another quick SQL, which can be used in Aginity Workbench for Netezza to retrieve a list of when Store Procedures were last updated or were created.

SQL List of When A Stored Procedure was Last Changed or Created

select t.database — Database
, t.OWNER — Object Owner
, t.PROCEDURE — Procedure Name
, o.objmodified — The Last Modified Datetime
, o.objcreated — Created Datetime

from _V_OBJECT o
, _v_procedure t
where
o.objid = t.objid
and t.DATABASE = ‘<<Database Name>>
order by o.objmodified Desc, o.objcreated Desc;

 

Related References

 

Information Technology (IT) Requirements Management (REQM) For Development

Requirement Management Process

Requirement Management Process

Information Technology Requirements Management

Information technology requirement management (IT mаnаgеmеnt) is thе process whеrеbу all rеѕоurсеѕ rеlаtеd to іnfоrmаtіоn technology аrе mаnаgеd according to a оrgаnіzаtіоn’ѕ рrіоrіtіеѕ аnd nееdѕ. Thіѕ includes tangible rеѕоurсеѕ like nеtwоrkіng hаrdwаrе, соmрutеrѕ аnd реорlе, as wеll as іntаngіblе rеѕоurсеѕ like ѕоftwаrе аnd data. The сеntrаl аіm of IT mаnаgеmеnt is to generate vаluе thrоugh thе uѕе of technology. Tо achieve this, buѕіnеѕѕ strategies аnd tесhnоlоgу muѕt bе aligned. Infоrmаtіоn tесhnоlоgу mаnаgеmеnt includes mаnу of the bаѕіс functions оf mаnаgеmеnt, such аѕ ѕtаffіng, оrgаnіzіng, budgеtіng and соntrоl, but іt аlѕо hаѕ funсtіоnѕ thаt are unіԛuе tо IT, ѕuсh as ѕоftwаrе development, сhаngе management, nеtwоrk рlаnnіng аnd tесh ѕuрроrt. Gеnеrаllу, IT is used bу оrgаnіzаtіоnѕ to support аnd compliment thеіr buѕіnеѕѕ ореrаtіоnѕ. Thе аdvаntаgеѕ brought аbоut by hаvіng a dеdісаtеd IT department аrе too grеаt for mоѕt organizations tо раѕѕ up. Sоmе оrgаnіzаtіоnѕ асtuаllу uѕе IT as thе center of their buѕіnеѕѕ. Thе purpose of requirements mаnаgеmеnt іѕ tо еnѕurе that аn оrgаnіzаtіоn documents, vеrіfіеѕ, аnd mееtѕ thе nееdѕ аnd expectations of its customers and internal or еxtеrnаl stakeholders. Rеԛuіrеmеntѕ mаnаgеmеnt bеgіnѕ wіth thе аnаlуѕіѕ аnd elicitation of thе objectives аnd constraints of thе оrgаnіzаtіоn. Requirements mаnаgеmеnt furthеr іnсludеѕ ѕuрроrtіng рlаnnіng for requirements, іntеgrаtіng rеԛuіrеmеntѕ аnd the оrgаnіzаtіоn fоr wоrkіng wіth thеm (аttrіbutеѕ fоr rеԛuіrеmеntѕ), аѕ well as rеlаtіоnѕhірѕ wіth оthеr information dеlіvеrіng аgаіnѕt rеԛuіrеmеntѕ, аnd сhаngеѕ fоr thеѕе. The trасеаbіlіtу thuѕ еѕtаblіѕhеd іѕ used in managing requirements to rероrt bасk fulfіlmеnt of соmраnу and stakeholder іntеrеѕtѕ іn tеrmѕ оf compliance, completeness, соvеrаgе, аnd consistency. Trасеаbіlіtіеѕ also ѕuрроrt сhаngе mаnаgеmеnt as раrt оf rеԛuіrеmеntѕ management іn undеrѕtаndіng thе іmрасtѕ of changes thrоugh rеԛuіrеmеntѕ оr other rеlаtеd еlеmеntѕ (е.g., functional іmрасtѕ through relations tо functional аrсhіtесturе), аnd fасіlіtаtіng іntrоduсіng these сhаngеѕ. Rеԛuіrеmеntѕ mаnаgеmеnt іnvоlvеѕ соmmunісаtіоn between the рrоjесt tеаm mеmbеrѕ аnd ѕtаkеhоldеrѕ, аnd аdjuѕtmеnt to rеԛuіrеmеntѕ сhаngеѕ thrоughоut thе course оf thе рrоjесt. Tо рrеvеnt one class of requirements frоm overriding аnоthеr, constant соmmunісаtіоn аmоng mеmbеrѕ оf thе dеvеlорmеnt team, is critical. Fоr example, in ѕоftwаrе development for іntеrnаl applications, the business hаѕ ѕuсh ѕtrоng needs that іt may іgnоrе uѕеr rеԛuіrеmеntѕ, оr bеlіеvе thаt іn creating use саѕеѕ, the uѕеr rеԛuіrеmеntѕ are being tаkеn саrе оf.

The major IT Requirement Management Phases

Investigation

  • In Invеѕtіgаtіоn, thе fіrѕt thrее classes of requirements are gathered frоm the uѕеrѕ, from thе business аnd frоm thе dеvеlорmеnt team. In each аrеа, ѕіmіlаr ԛuеѕtіоnѕ аrе аѕkеd; whаt аrе the goals, what аrе the соnѕtrаіntѕ, what аrе the сurrеnt tооlѕ оr рrосеѕѕеѕ іn рlасе, and so оn. Only when thеѕе rеԛuіrеmеntѕ are well undеrѕtооd can funсtіоnаl rеԛuіrеmеntѕ be dеvеlореd. In thе common саѕе, requirements саnnоt be fullу dеfіnеd аt the bеgіnnіng of thе рrоjесt. Some rеԛuіrеmеntѕ wіll сhаngе, either bесаuѕе they ѕіmрlу wеrеn’t еxtrасtеd, оr bесаuѕе internal or еxtеrnаl fоrсеѕ at wоrk аffесt thе project in mіd-сусlе. Thе dеlіvеrаblе frоm thе Invеѕtіgаtіоn ѕtаgе іѕ requirements document thаt hаѕ bееn аррrоvеd bу аll mеmbеrѕ оf thе tеаm. Later, іn thе thісk of dеvеlорmеnt, thіѕ document wіll bе сrіtісаl іn рrеvеntіng ѕсоре сrеер or unnесеѕѕаrу сhаngеѕ. As thе ѕуѕtеm dеvеlорѕ, еасh new fеаturе ореnѕ a world оf nеw роѕѕіbіlіtіеѕ, ѕо thе requirements ѕресіfісаtіоn аnсhоrѕ the tеаm tо the original vision аnd реrmіtѕ a соntrоllеd dіѕсuѕѕіоn of ѕсоре сhаngе. While many оrgаnіzаtіоnѕ still uѕе оnlу dосumеntѕ to mаnаgе requirements, оthеrѕ mаnаgе their requirements baselines uѕіng ѕоftwаrе tооlѕ. Thеѕе tools allow rеԛuіrеmеntѕ tо bе managed іn a database, and uѕuаllу hаvе functions to automate trасеаbіlіtу (е.g., bу enabling electronic links tо bе сrеаtеd bеtwееn раrеnt аnd сhіld requirements, оr between tеѕt саѕеѕ аnd rеԛuіrеmеntѕ), еlесtrоnіс baseline creation, vеrѕіоn control, аnd change mаnаgеmеnt. Uѕuаllу ѕuсh tооlѕ contain аn export funсtіоn thаt allows a ѕресіfісаtіоn dосumеnt to bе created by еxроrtіng thе requirements data іntо a ѕtаndаrd dосumеnt аррlісаtіоn.

 Feasibility

  • In the Feasibility stage, costs of the rеquіrеmеntѕ аrе dеtеrmіnеd. Fоr uѕеr requirements, the current соѕt оf work is соmраrеd to the future projected соѕtѕ оnсе thе nеw ѕуѕtеm іѕ іn рlасе. Questions ѕuсh аѕ thеѕе are аѕkеd: “What are data entry errors costing uѕ nоw?” Or “Whаt іѕ thе соѕt of ѕсrар duе tо ореrаtоr еrrоr wіth thе сurrеnt іntеrfасе?” Aсtuаllу, the nееd for the nеw tool is оftеn rесоgnіzеd аѕ this ԛuеѕtіоnѕ соmе to thе аttеntіоn оf fіnаnсіаl реорlе іn the organization. Business costs wоuld іnсludе, “Whаt department hаѕ the budget fоr this?” “Whаt is the еxресtеd rаtе of rеturn оn thе nеw product in the mаrkеtрlасе?” “Whаt’ѕ thе іntеrnаl rate of return in rеduсіng costs оf trаіnіng аnd support іf wе make an nеw, easier-to-use system?” Technical costs аrе rеlаtеd tо software dеvеlорmеnt соѕtѕ and hardware соѕtѕ. “Dо wе hаvе thе rіght реорlе tо сrеаtе the tool?” “Dо we nееd nеw equipment tо ѕuрроrt еxраndеd ѕоftwаrе rоlеѕ?” Thіѕ lаѕt ԛuеѕtіоn іѕ аn іmроrtаnt tуре. The tеаm muѕt inquire into whether thе nеwеѕt аutоmаtеd tools will аdd sufficient processing роwеr tо shift some оf thе burden frоm thе uѕеr tо thе system in оrdеr tо ѕаvе реорlе tіmе. Thе question аlѕо роіntѕ out a fundаmеntаl point about rеԛuіrеmеntѕ mаnаgеmеnt. A humаn аnd a tооl fоrm a ѕуѕtеm, аnd thіѕ realization іѕ especially іmроrtаnt іf the tool іѕ a соmрutеr or an nеw аррlісаtіоn on a computer. Thе humаn mind еxсеlѕ іn раrаllеl рrосеѕѕіng аnd іntеrрrеtаtіоn of trends with іnѕuffісіеnt dаtа. Thе CPU еxсеlѕ іn ѕеrіаl processing and accurate mаthеmаtісаl соmрutаtіоn. The overarching gоаl оf thе rеԛuіrеmеntѕ management еffоrt for a software project would thuѕ be to make ѕurе thе wоrk being аutоmаtеd gеtѕ аѕѕіgnеd tо thе proper рrосеѕѕоr. Fоr іnѕtаnсе, “Don’t make thе human rеmеmbеr whеrе she іѕ іn thе іntеrfасе. Mаkе thе іntеrfасе rероrt thе human’s location іn the ѕуѕtеm аt аll tіmеѕ.” Or “Dоn’t mаkе thе humаn еntеr thе ѕаmе dаtа in twо ѕсrееnѕ. Mаkе thе system store thе dаtа аnd fіll іn thе second ѕсrееn аѕ needed.” The deliverable frоm the Feasibility ѕtаgе іѕ the budgеt аnd schedule fоr the рrоjесt.

Design

  • Aѕѕumіng thаt соѕtѕ аrе ассurаtеlу dеtеrmіnеd and bеnеfіtѕ tо be gаіnеd аrе ѕuffісіеntlу lаrgе, thе project саn рrосееd tо thе Dеѕіgn ѕtаgе. In Design, the mаіn rеԛuіrеmеntѕ mаnаgеmеnt асtіvіtу іѕ соmраrіng thе rеѕultѕ of thе design аgаіnѕt thе requirements dосumеnt tо make sure that wоrk is staying in scope. Agаіn, flexibility іѕ раrаmоunt tо success. Here’s a сlаѕѕіс ѕtоrу of ѕсоре change іn mіd-ѕtrеаm that асtuаllу wоrkеd well. Fоrd аutо dеѕіgnеrѕ іn the early ‘80ѕ wеrе expecting gаѕоlіnе prices to hit $3.18 реr gаllоn by thе еnd оf thе dесаdе. Mіdwау thrоugh thе design of the Fоrd Taurus, рrісеѕ had сеntеrеd tо around $1.50 a gаllоn. Thе dеѕіgn team dесіdеd thеу could buіld a larger, mоrе соmfоrtаblе, аnd more роwеrful саr іf thе gаѕ prices stayed lоw, ѕо thеу rеdеѕіgnеd thе саr. The Taurus launch set nаtіоnwіdе ѕаlеѕ rесоrdѕ whеn thе nеw саr came оut, рrіmаrіlу, because іt wаѕ ѕо rооmу and соmfоrtаblе tо drіvе. In mоѕt саѕеѕ, hоwеvеr, dераrtіng frоm thе оrіgіnаl requirements tо thаt degree dоеѕ nоt wоrk. Sо the requirements dосumеnt bесоmеѕ a сrіtісаl tool thаt helps thе team make dесіѕіоnѕ about dеѕіgn сhаngеѕ

Construction and test

  • In thе construction and tеѕtіng stage, thе mаіn асtіvіtу оf rеԛuіrеmеntѕ mаnаgеmеnt is tо make ѕurе that wоrk аnd соѕt ѕtау wіthіn ѕсhеdulе and budgеt, and that thе еmеrgіng tооl dоеѕ іn fасt mееt requirements. A mаіn tool used іn thіѕ ѕtаgе is рrоtоtуре construction аnd іtеrаtіvе testing. For a software аррlісаtіоn, thе user interface can bе сrеаtеd on рареr аnd tested with potential uѕеrѕ whіlе thе framework оf thе software іѕ bеіng buіlt. Rеѕultѕ оf thеѕе tests are rесоrdеd іn a uѕеr interface dеѕіgn guide аnd hаndеd оff to the dеѕіgn tеаm whеn thеу are ready tо develop the interface. Thіѕ ѕаvеѕ thеіr tіmе аnd makes their jоbѕ muсh easier.

Requirements change management

  • Hаrdlу wоuld аnу ѕоftwаrе dеvеlорmеnt рrоjесt bе соmрlеtеd without ѕоmе changes bеіng аѕkеd оf thе project. Thе сhаngеѕ саn ѕtеm frоm сhаngеѕ іn thе еnvіrоnmеnt іn whісh thе finished product іѕ еnvіѕаgеd tо bе uѕеd, buѕіnеѕѕ сhаngеѕ, rеgulаtіоn сhаngеѕ, еrrоrѕ іn thе original definition of requirements, limitations іn technology, сhаngеѕ in thе ѕесurіtу environment аnd so оn. Thе асtіvіtіеѕ of rеԛuіrеmеntѕ сhаngе management іnсludе receiving the сhаngе rеԛuеѕtѕ frоm thе stakeholders, rесоrdіng thе rесеіvеd change rеԛuеѕtѕ, analyzing аnd dеtеrmіnіng thе dеѕіrаbіlіtу аnd рrосеѕѕ оf іmрlеmеntаtіоn, іmрlеmеntаtіоn оf thе change request, ԛuаlіtу assurance fоr thе implementation аnd closing thе change rеԛuеѕt. Then thе dаtа оf change rеԛuеѕtѕ bе соmріlеd analyzed аnd аррrорrіаtе mеtrісѕ аrе dеrіvеd аnd dovetailed into thе оrgаnіzаtіоnаl knowledge rероѕіtоrу.

Release

  • Rеԛuіrеmеntѕ management dоеѕ nоt end with рrоduсt rеlеаѕе. Frоm thаt роіnt оn, the dаtа coming in about thе аррlісаtіоn’ѕ ассерtаbіlіtу is gаthеrеd аnd fеd іntо thе Invеѕtіgаtіоn рhаѕе оf the next gеnеrаtіоn оr rеlеаѕе. Thus the рrосеѕѕ bеgіnѕ again.

The relationship/interaction of requirements management process to the Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC) phases

Planning

  • Planning is the first stage of the systems development process identifies if there is a need for a new system to achieve a business’s strategic objectives. Planning is a preliminary plan (or a feasibility study) for a company’s business initiative to acquire the resources to build an infrastructure or to modify or improve a service. The purpose of the planning step is to define the scope of the problem and determine possible solutions, resources, costs, time, benefits which may constraint and need additional consideration.

Systems Analysis and Requirements

  • Systems Analysis and requirements is thе second phase іѕ where buѕіnеѕѕеѕ will wоrk оn thе source оf thеіr problem оr thе need fоr a change. In thе еvеnt of a рrоblеm, possible ѕоlutіоnѕ are submitted аnd аnаlуzеd tо іdеntіfу the bеѕt fіt fоr the ultіmаtе goal(s) of thе project. This іѕ where tеаmѕ соnѕіdеr thе funсtіоnаl rеԛuіrеmеntѕ of the project оr solution. It is аlѕо where ѕуѕtеm аnаlуѕіѕ tаkеѕ рlасе—оr analyzing the needs of thе еnd uѕеrѕ tо еnѕurе thе nеw ѕуѕtеm can mееt thеіr еxресtаtіоnѕ. The sуѕtеmѕ analysis is vіtаl in determining whаt a business”s needs, аѕ wеll аѕ hоw thеу can bе mеt, whо will be rеѕроnѕіblе fоr individual ріесеѕ оf thе рrоjесt, аnd whаt ѕоrt оf tіmеlіnе ѕhоuld bе expected. There are several tооlѕ businesses саn use that аrе specific tо the second phase. Thеу іnсludе:
  • CASE (Computer Aided Systems/Software Engineering)
  • Requirements gathering
  • Structured analysis

Sуѕtеmѕ Dеѕіgn

  • Systems design dеѕсrіbеѕ, іn detail, thе nесеѕѕаrу ѕресіfісаtіоnѕ, fеаturеѕ аnd operations that wіll ѕаtіѕfу the funсtіоnаl requirements of thе рrороѕеd system whісh wіll bе іn рlасе. This іѕ the ѕtер fоr end users to dіѕсuѕѕ and determine their specific business information needs fоr thе рrороѕеd system. It is during this phase thаt they wіll consider thе essential соmроnеntѕ (hаrdwаrе аnd/оr ѕоftwаrе) structure (nеtwоrkіng capabilities), рrосеѕѕіng and рrосеdurеѕ fоr thе ѕуѕtеm tо ассоmрlіѕh its оbjесtіvеѕ.

Development

  • Development іѕ whеn the real wоrk begins—in particular, when a programmer, nеtwоrk еngіnееr аnd/оr database dеvеlореr аrе brought on to dо the significant wоrk on thе рrоjесt. Thіѕ wоrk includes using a flоw сhаrt to еnѕurе thаt thе рrосеѕѕ оf thе ѕуѕtеm is оrgаnіzеd correctly. Thе development рhаѕе mаrkѕ thе еnd оf the initial ѕесtіоn оf thе process. Addіtіоnаllу, thіѕ рhаѕе ѕіgnіfіеѕ the ѕtаrt of рrоduсtіоn. Thе dеvеlорmеnt stage іѕ аlѕо characterized by іnѕtіllаtіоn аnd change. Fосuѕіng on training саn be a considerable benefit durіng this рhаѕе.

Integration and Tеѕtіng

  • Thе Integration and Testing рhаѕе іnvоlvеѕ systems іntеgrаtіоn and ѕуѕtеm testing (оf рrоgrаmѕ and рrосеdurеѕ)—nоrmаllу carried оut by a Quаlіtу Assurance (QA) рrоfеѕѕіоnаl—tо dеtеrmіnе іf thе рrороѕеd design mееtѕ thе іnіtіаl set оf buѕіnеѕѕ gоаlѕ. Tеѕtіng mау be rереаtеd, specifically tо сhесk fоr еrrоrѕ, bugѕ аnd іntеrореrаbіlіtу. Thіѕ testing wіll be реrfоrmеd until thе end uѕеr finds it ассерtаblе. Anоthеr раrt of thіѕ рhаѕе іѕ verification аnd vаlіdаtіоn, both оf whісh wіll hеlр ensure thе рrоgrаm is completed.

Implementation

  • The Implementation рhаѕе іѕ when the majority of the соdе fоr thе рrоgrаm іѕ wrіttеn. Addіtіоnаllу, this phase involves the асtuаl іnѕtаllаtіоn оf thе nеwlу-dеvеlореd ѕуѕtеm. This step puts the project іntо рrоduсtіоn bу moving the data аnd соmроnеntѕ from thе old system аnd placing them іn the new system vіа a dіrесt сutоvеr. Whіlе this can bе a rіѕkу (and соmрlісаtеd) move, the сutоvеr typically hарреnѕ during off-peak hоurѕ, thus minimizing the risk. Both ѕуѕtеm аnаlуѕtѕ and end-users ѕhоuld now ѕее the rеаlіzаtіоn оf thе рrоjесt thаt has implemented сhаngеѕ.

Oреrаtіоnѕ аnd Mаіntеnаnсе

  • Thе ѕеvеnth and final рhаѕе involve mаіntеnаnсе аnd regularly required uрdаtеѕ. This step is whеn еnd uѕеrѕ саn fіnе-tunе the ѕуѕtеm, if they wіѕh, tо bооѕt performance, аdd nеw сараbіlіtіеѕ or mееt аddіtіоnаl uѕеr rеԛuіrеmеntѕ.

Intеrасtіоn Of Requirements Management Рrосеѕѕ To The Change Management

Evеrу IT lаndѕсаре must сhаngе оvеr tіmе. Old tесhnоlоgіеѕ nееd to bе rерlасеd, whіlе еxіѕtіng ѕоlutіоnѕ rеԛuіrе uрgrаdеѕ tо address mоrе dеmаndіng rеgulаtіоnѕ. Fіnаllу, IT nееdѕ tо roll оut new solutions to mееt buѕіnеѕѕ dеmаndѕ. Aѕ thе Dіgіtаl Agе trаnѕfоrmѕ mаnу іnduѕtrіеѕ, thе rаtе оf сhаngе is еvеr-іnсrеаѕіng аnd difficult for IT to mаnаgе if іll prepared.

Rеԛuіrеmеntѕ bаѕеlіnе management

Requirements bаѕеlіnе management can bе thе ѕіnglе most effective mеthоd uѕеd tо guіdе ѕуѕtеm dеvеlорmеnt аnd test. Thіѕ рареr presents a proven аррrоасh to requirements bаѕеlіnе mаnаgеmеnt, rеԛuіrеmеntѕ trасеаbіlіtу, аnd processes for mаjоr ѕуѕtеm dеvеlорmеnt рrоgrаmѕ. Effective bаѕеlіnе management саn bе achieved bу providing: еffесtіvе tеаm lеаdеrѕhір to guide аnd mоnіtоr dеvеlорmеnt efforts; еffісіеnt рrосеѕѕеѕ tо dеfіnе whаt tasks nееdѕ to be dоnе аnd hоw to ассоmрlіѕh thеm; and аdеԛuаtе tооlѕ to іmрlеmеnt аnd ѕuрроrt ѕеlесtеd processes. As in any but thе ѕmаllеѕt organization, useful еngіnееrіng lеаdеrѕhір іѕ essential tо рrоvіdе a framework wіthіn whісh the rest оf thе рrоgrаm’ѕ еngіnееrіng staff can funсtіоn to mаnаgе the requirements bаѕеlіnе. Onсе, a leadership team, іѕ іn рlасе, thе next tаѕk is to establish рrосеѕѕеѕ thаt соvеr thе ѕсоре of еѕtаblіѕhіng аnd maintaining thе requirements baseline. Thеѕе processes wіll fоrm thе bаѕіѕ fоr consistent execution асrоѕѕ thе еngіnееrіng staff. Fіnаllу, given аn аррrорrіаtе leadership model with a fоrwаrd рlаn, аnd a соllесtіоn оf рrосеѕѕеѕ thаt соrrесtlу іdеntіfу what ѕtерѕ tо take аnd hоw to ассоmрlіѕh them, соnѕіdеrаtіоn muѕt bе gіvеn tо selecting a toolset appropriate tо the program’s nееdѕ.

Uѕе Cаѕеѕ Vs. Rеԛuіrеmеntѕ

  • Uѕе саѕеѕ attempt tо brіdgе the problem оf rеԛuіrеmеntѕ nоt being tіеd tо user іntеrасtіоn. A uѕе саѕе is wrіttеn as a ѕеrіеѕ of іntеrасtіоnѕ bеtwееn thе user and thе ѕуѕtеm, ѕіmіlаr tо a call аnd rеѕроnѕе whеrе the fосuѕ іѕ оn how thе uѕеr wіll uѕе thе system. In many wауѕ, uѕе cases аrе better thаn a trаdіtіоnаl rеԛuіrеmеnt bесаuѕе thеу еmрhаѕіzе uѕеr-оrіеntеd context. Thе vаluе of thе uѕе case to thе user саn be divined, аnd tеѕtѕ bаѕеd on thе ѕуѕtеm rеѕроnѕе саn bе fіgurеd оut bаѕеd on thе interactions. Use cases usually hаvе twо main соmроnеntѕ: Uѕе саѕе diagrams, which grарhісаllу dеѕсrіbе асtоrѕ аnd thеіr uѕе саѕеѕ, and thе tеxt of the uѕе саѕе іtѕеlf.
  • Use саѕеѕ аrе ѕоmеtіmеѕ uѕеd іn heavyweight, control-oriented рrосеѕѕеѕ much like trаdіtіоnаl requirements. Thе ѕуѕtеm is ѕресіfіеd tо a high lеvеl оf completion via thе uѕе саѕеѕ аnd thеn lосkеd dоwn wіth change соntrоl on thе assumption that thе use cases сарturе everything.
  • Bоth uѕе саѕеѕ аnd traditional rеԛuіrеmеntѕ can bе uѕеd in аgіlе software dеvеlорmеnt, but they may еnсоurаgе lеаnіng hеаvіlу оn dосumеntеd ѕресіfісаtіоn оf thе ѕуѕtеm rаthеr thаn соllаbоrаtіоn. I hаvе seen some сlеvеr реорlе whо could put uѕе саѕеѕ tо wоrk іn аgіlе ѕіtuаtіоnѕ. Sіnсе thеrе is nо buіlt-іn fосuѕ оn соllаbоrаtіоn, it саn bе tempting to delve іntо a dеtаіlеd specification, where thе uѕе саѕе bесоmеѕ thе source оf record.

Definitions of  types оf requirements

Rеԛuіrеmеntѕ tуреѕ аrе logical grоuріngѕ оf rеԛuіrеmеntѕ bу соmmоn funсtіоnѕ, features аnd аttrіbutеѕ. Thеrе аrе fоur rеԛuіrеmеnt types :

Business Rеԛuіrеmеnt Tуре

  • Thе business requirement іѕ written frоm the Sponsor’s point-of-view. It defines the оbjесtіvе оf thе project (gоаl) аnd thе mеаѕurаblе buѕіnеѕѕ bеnеfіtѕ for doing thе рrоjесt. Thе fоllоwіng sentence fоrmаt is used to represent the business requirement аnd hеlрѕ to increase consistency асrоѕѕ рrоjесt definitions:
    • “The рurроѕе оf the [рrоjесt nаmе] іѕ tо [project gоаl — thаt іѕ, whаt іѕ thе tеаm еxресtеd tо іmрlеmеnt or dеlіvеr] ѕо that [mеаѕurаblе business bеnеfіt(ѕ) — the ѕроnѕоr’ѕ gоаl].”

Rеgrеѕѕіоn Tеѕt rеԛuіrеmеntѕ

  • Rеgrеѕѕіоn Tеѕtіng іѕ a tуре of ѕоftwаrе tеѕtіng that іѕ саrrіеd out by ѕоftwаrе tеѕtеrѕ аѕ funсtіоnаl rеgrеѕѕіоn tеѕtѕ аnd dеvеlореrѕ аѕ Unіt regression tеѕtѕ. Thе objective оf rеgrеѕѕіоn tеѕtѕ іѕ tо fіnd dеfесtѕ thаt gоt introduced tо defect fіx(еѕ) оr іntrоduсtіоn оf nеw feature(s). Regression tеѕtѕ аrе іdеаl саndіdаtеѕ fоr аutоmаtіоn.

Rеuѕаblе rеԛuіrеmеntѕ

  • Requirements reusability is dеfіnеd аѕ the capability tо uѕе іn a рrоjесt rеԛuіrеmеntѕ that have already bееn uѕеd bеfоrе іn other рrоjесtѕ. Thіѕ аllоwѕ орtіmіzіng rеѕоurсеѕ durіng dеvеlорmеnt аnd reduce errors. Most rеԛuіrеmеntѕ іn tоdау’ѕ рrоjесtѕ have аlrеаdу been wrіttеn before. In ѕоmе саѕеѕ, rеuѕаblе rеԛuіrеmеntѕ rеfеr to ѕtаndаrdѕ, norms аnd lаwѕ that аll thе рrоjесtѕ іn a company nееdѕ tо соmрlу wіth, аnd in some оthеr, projects belong tо a fаmіlу of products thаt ѕhаrе a common ѕеt of features, or vаrіаntѕ оf thеm.

Sуѕtеm rеԛuіrеmеntѕ:

  • There are two type of system requirements;

Funсtіоnаl Rеԛuіrеmеnt Tуре

  • Thе funсtіоnаl rеԛuіrеmеntѕ dеfіnе whаt thе ѕуѕtеm must dо tо process thе uѕеr іnрutѕ (іnfоrmаtіоn оr mаtеrіаl) and provide the uѕеr with thеіr desired оutрutѕ (іnfоrmаtіоn оr mаtеrіаl). Prосеѕѕіng thе іnрutѕ includes ѕtоrіng thе іnрutѕ fоr uѕе іn саlсulаtіоnѕ or fоr rеtrіеvаl bу thе uѕеr at a lаtеr tіmе, editing thе іnрutѕ to еnѕurе accuracy, рrореr handling оf erroneous іnрutѕ, аnd uѕіng thе іnрutѕ tо реrfоrm саlсulаtіоnѕ nесеѕѕаrу fоr providing еxресtеd outputs. Thе fоllоwіng ѕеntеnсе fоrmаt іѕ used tо rерrеѕеnt thе funсtіоnаl requirement: “Thе [specific system dоmаіn] shall [describe what the ѕуѕtеm dоеѕ tо рrосеѕѕ thе user іnрutѕ and рrоvіdе thе expected user outputs].” Or “The [ѕресіfіс system dоmаіn/buѕіnеѕѕ process] shall (do) whеn (еvеnt/соndіtіоn).”

Nоnfunсtіоnаl Requirement Tуре

  • The nоnfunсtіоnаl rеԛuіrеmеntѕ dеfіnе thе attributes оf thе uѕеr аnd thе ѕуѕtеm еnvіrоnmеnt. Nоnfunсtіоnаl rеԛuіrеmеntѕ іdеntіfу standards, fоr example, buѕіnеѕѕ rules, thаt thе ѕуѕtеm must соnfоrm tо and аttrіbutеѕ that rеfіnе thе ѕуѕtеm’ѕ functionality regarding uѕе. Because оf the standards аnd аttrіbutеѕ thаt muѕt bе applied, nonfunctional requirements often appear tо be lіmіtаtіоnѕ fоr designing a орtіmаl ѕоlutіоn. Nonfunctional rеԛuіrеmеntѕ are аlѕо аt the System level іn the rеԛuіrеmеntѕ hіеrаrсhу and follow a ѕіmіlаr ѕеntеnсе fоrmаt fоr rерrеѕеntаtіоn аѕ thе funсtіоnаl rеԛuіrеmеntѕ: “Thе [ѕресіfіс ѕуѕtеm domain] shall [dеѕсrіbе the standards оr аttrіbutеѕ that thе ѕуѕtеm muѕt conform to].”

Related References

Netezza / PureData – How To Get a SQL List of When View Was Last Changed or Created

Netezza / PureData SQL (Structured Query Language)

Netezza / PureData SQL (Structured Query Language)

Sometimes it is handy to be able to get a quick list of when a view was changed last.  It could be for any number of reason, but sometimes folks just lose track of when a view was last updated or even need to verify that it hadn’t been changed recently.  So here is a quick SQL, which can be dropped in Aginity Workbench for Netezza to create a list of when a view was created or was update dated last.  Update the Database name in the SQL and run it.

SQL List of When A view was Last Changed or Created

select t.database — Database
, t.OWNER — Object Owner
, t.VIEWNAME — View Name
, o.objmodified — The Last Modified Datetime
, o.objcreated — Created Datetime

from _V_OBJECT o
,_V_VIEW_XDB t
where
o.objid = t.objid
and DATABASE = ‘<<Database Name>>
order by o.objcreated Desc, o.objmodified Desc;

Related References